Female Infertility ,What are the Effects and Causes of Female Infertility and Infertile Therapy



Infertility is a prominent health issue which is affecting approximately 15% of couples/partners globally in the recent time. It is a multidimensional problem that includes medical, social, economic, cultural, and relationship implications. Infertility defined as the failure of the couple to conceive chilled after one year of unprotected intercourse.[1]

Effects of Infertility on female lives

Most of the couples want to achieve pregnancy and start a family. However, in response to being unable to achieve pregnancy, many couples feel anger and panic in their lives. These emotions can negative effect on quality of life.

Major Causes of Female Infertility

The most common causes of female infertility include problems in the uterine tube (fallopian tubes), ovarian function disorder, menstrual disorders and other unknown factors.

·         How Fallopian tubes diseases affect on infertility

Tubal diseases are one of a major factor of female infertility. It is reported that Tubal diseases affect 25 - 30% women in developing countries.[2]   There are many intrinsic and extrinsic infections (salinities, salpingitis isthmica nodosa, peritonitis, endometriosis, pelvic surgery etc) which damage the fallopian tube.[3]  
There is successful alternative reproductive technological treatment such as Hydrosalpinx and Hysterosalpingography for tubal factor infertility.[4]

  •           Effect of  Menstrual disorders on Infertility

A menstrual disorder is defined as an abnormal condition in woman's menstrual cycle. The present study indicates that 20% of  infertility in women is associated with menstrual disorders, which frequently occur as a result of metabolic diseases.   The menstrual disorder has direct effects on decreasing sexual activity and fertility.[5]

  •          Ovarian functional problems and infertility

Primary or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the most common sexual and fertility problem in young girls. It is associated with  the spectrum of ovarian dysfunction. POI relates to decreasing of ovarian reserve with subfertility and it also plays an important role to raise FSH level in women. It negatively affects on sexual characteristics that may lead to several sexual problems in women including infertility.[6]

·         How Hyperprolactinemia affect on Infertility

Hyperprolactinemia is defined as a specific condition in which serum prolactin levels is high than normal level. The normal high limit serum prolactin level is 20nglmL in women. Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of    infertility in men and women.[7]

·        Effect of Genital tract infection on Infertility

It is a bacterial and viral infection of the genital tract. It is one of the important etiological factors of male and female infertility. It may lead to the decline of spermatogenesis and impairment of sperm function.

  •         How Age factor affect on Infertility

Age factor extremely relates to female fertility. Many couples want to delay for the conceiving child. This delay may lead to preventing to conceive a child . It is important to remember that women under age 30 have up to 70% chance to conceive the child and when she goes to over 36, have approximately 40% chance   to become pregnant.[8]
It is couple‘s responsibility to chose the perfect time to conceive the pregnancy. Otherwise, when women reach 35 years of age, their fertility starts to decline.

  •        Relationship between Obesity and Infertility

The prevalence of obesity and overweight has become a worldwide serious issue today. It is accepted that there is a strong association between obesity and infertility.[9] Obesity and overweight negatively affect on sexual health and infertility. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), “if the body mass index (BMI) equals to or is greater than 25 kg/m2, it is considered overweight, whereas if the BMI equals to or is greater than 30 kg/m2, it is considered obesity”.[10]

  •        Effect of  Underweight on fertility

Underweight is one of the important parts of female infertility which can affect fertility in both men and women. In addition, low BMI (very low amount of body fat) can lead to ovarian dysfunction and infertility in women.[11] It is important to remember that when BMI become blow 17 (RR 1.6) in women the risk of infertility will be increased.[12] 

  •         Association between Psychological factor and Infertility

 Psychological stress can reduce female reproductive health in various ways.[13] Psychological factors (stress, depression and reduce self-esteem) have many negative effects on fertility.  It is reported that physical stress like depression and anxiety disorder have 30% effects in women who attend infertility clinic.[14]

  •                  Environmental Risk Factors on Infertility

Latest researchers suggest that several environmental factors (heat, chemicals dust, silicones, physical agents and chemicals) may lead to infertility[15] and they can also negative effects on sperm quality. [16]


Infertile therapy

Reproductive health treatment remains an effective option for infertile couples/ partners.  However, benefits of medical treatment depend on diagnosing the perfect cause of infertility and treat it with the suitable medications.  Infertility is a common problem that touches the soul of couples who involved in this problem in modern societies. Medical science has increased the chances of giving solutions to infertility with the assisted of reproduction.




[1] Benyamini Y, Gozlan M, Kokia E. Variability in the difficulties experienced by women undergoing infertility
treatments. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(2):275-83.
[2]Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?, Ginter Sotrel, MD, Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Summer; 2(3): 176–185, PMCID: PMC2760895.
[3] Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?, Ginter Sotrel, MD, Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Summer; 2(3): 176–185, PMCID: PMC2760895
[4] Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?, Ginter Sotrel, MD, Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Summer; 2(3): 176–185, PMCID: PMC2760895.
[5]  Causes of Infertility in Women at Reproductive Age,  Roupa Z.,1 Polikandrioti M.,2 Sotiropoulou P.,3 Faros E.,4 Koulouri A.,5 Wozniak G., 6 Gourni M., HSJ – Health Science Journal, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2 (2009). 
[6] Ovarian function in girls and women with GALT-deficiency galactosemia, Judith L. Fridovich-eil & Cynthia S. Gubbels &  Jessica B. Spencer & Rebecca D. Sanders & Jolande A. Land & Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, J Inherit Metab Dis (2011) 34:357366 DOI 10.1007/s10545-010-9221-4,this article is published with open access at Springerlink.com.
[7] Ciccarelli A, Daly AF, Beckers A. The epidemiology of prolactinomas. Pituitary. 2005;8:3–6. [PubMed]
[8] Mutsaerts MA, Groen H, Huiting HG, Kuchenbecker WK, Sauer PJ, Land JA, Stolk RP, Hoek A. The influence of maternal and paternal factors on time to pregnancy–a dutch population-based birth-cohort study: the GECKO drenthe study. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:583–593. doi: 10.1093/humrep
[9] Impact of obesity on infertility in women, Zeynep Özcan Dağ1, Berna Dilbaz2, This article will be credited by TMA within the scope of CME/CPD.
[10] World Health Organization. Preventing and managing the globalepidemic. Report of the World Health Organization on obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997.
[11] Kirchengast S, Gruber D, Sator M, Hartmann B, Knogler W, Huber J. Menopause-associated differences in female fat patterning estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ann Hum Biol. 1997;24:45–54. doi: 10.1080/03014469700004762. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[12] Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Cramer DW. Body mass index and ovulatory infertility. Epidemiology. 1994;5:247–250. doi: 10.1097/00001648-199403000-00016. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[13]  Association of western diet & lifestyle with decreased fertility,  P. Nazni,  Indian J Med Res 140 (Supplement), November 2014, pp 78-8.
[14] Pook M, Krause W, Röhrle B. A validation study on the negative association between an active coping style and sperm concentration. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2000;18:2
49–252. doi: 10.1080/713683041. [Cross Ref] and also see: Peterson BD, Newton CR, Feingold T. Anxiety and sexual stress in men and women undergoing infertility treatment. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:911–914. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.12.023. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
[15] Weller DP, Zaneweld JD, Farnsworth NR.Gossypol: pharmacology and current status asa male contraceptive. Econ Med Plant Res1985;1:87-112.
 [16] Thonneau P, Bujan L, Multigner L, Mieusset R. Occupational heat exposure and male fertility: a review. Hum Reprod 1998;13:2122- 2125.